The Great Russian Empire was on the brink of collapse. Stunning news swept swiftly around the word on 3 March 1917 - REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA! The Kronstadt sailors were the main participants of the Bolshevik coup during the Russian Revolution, taking control of the capital, Petrograd in October 1917 and holding it until the new government came to power after an overwhelming victory. In Kronstadt itself the sailors had shot many of the Tsar's most important naval and military figures - admirals, ships' commanders, captains and midshipmen. Later it was the sailors who also provided the main support of the Bolshevik government when it seized power. The sailors' black pea-jackets came to be regarded as a fearsome deterrent in Petrograd and eventually throughout all Russia. Four years were to pass before the sailors of the Baltic Fleet realized that the workers' and peasants' power, for which they had struggled so fiercely and which had been promised by the Bolsheviks, was never received. Thus in March of 1921 Russia found itself on the brink of yet another revolution - and the world would hear the name of Kronstadt once again.
Runtime: 50 minutes
Кронштадт 1921 - Kronstadt - Netflix
Kronstadt (Russian: Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (German: Krone for “crown” and Stadt for “city”; Estonian: Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, 30 kilometers (19 mi) west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland. Population: 43,005 (2010 Census); 43,385 (2002 Census). It is also Saint Petersburg's main seaport. In March 1921, it was the site of the Kronstadt rebellion. Traditionally, the seat of the Russian admiralty and the base of the Russian Baltic Fleet were located in Kronstadt guarding the approaches to Saint Petersburg. The historic centre of the city and its fortifications are part of the World Heritage Site Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments. Kronstadt has been a place of pilgrimage for Orthodox Christians for many years due to the holy memory of Saint John of Kronstadt. Bus and water tours to Kronstadt are taken daily from Saint Petersburg. Kronstadt was the birthplace of Pyotr Kapitsa, co-recipient of the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Кронштадт 1921 - World War II - Netflix
In the late 1930s, Kronstadt lived the life of the fortified city and was the base of the Baltic Fleet. During that time Kronstadt was an important training center of the Soviet Navy. The Kronstadt Ship Repair Plant (Navy Plant) overhauled and repaired surface ships and submarines of the Baltic Fleet. All forts and batteries of the city were under reconstruction. At 23:37 on June 21, 1941, the operational readiness of Fleet Number 1 was announced by Baltic Fleet Commander Vice Admiral V. Tributs according to the order of the People's Commissar of the Navy. Several hours later the first German aircraft began mining the fairway near Kronstadt. The duty officer (First Lieutenant S. Kushnerev) ordered antiaircraft batteries to open fire on the enemy planes; several aircraft were shot down or damaged. Twenty-seven German planes took part at the first attack, and three of them were destroyed by the anti-aircraft guns of the 1st Air Defence Regiment of the Baltic Fleet. This regiment was situated on the southern forts. During World War II, Kronstadt was bombed several times by the Luftwaffe. In August 1941 the Luftwaffe began bombing Kronstadt regularly. The most notable bombing was Stuka ace Hans-Ulrich Rudel's sinking of the Soviet battleship Marat. To prevent an enemy landing, 13 artillery batteries were established in Kronstadt and nine more batteries beyond the city, (but on the island Kotlin). The main lookout was located in the Naval Cathedral. Visual range reached 45 km (28 mi). The coastal defense of Kronstadt included two infantry regiments. In late August, the Red Army in the Baltic States was in a critical situation. Tallinn, the main base of the fleet, was in danger and a decree to relocate the fleet from Tallinn to Kronstadt was given. By the time the Soviets had decided on a maritime evacuation of Tallinn, over 200 Soviet civilian and military vessels had been assembled in the harbor of Tallinn. After the evacuation of Tallinn, the submarine subdivision had been organized in Kronstadt. By the end of 1941, 82 naval operations were made. Hitler was enraged, because Soviet submarines frequently disrupted military supplies of strategic materials from Sweden to Germany. The Germans tried to block completely the exit from the Gulf of Finland with antisubmarine nets and mines. Despite these efforts, the Soviet submariners continued to attack German ships. In 1942, 29 German vessels were sunk. Submarines cooperated with reconnaissance aircraft in searching for military targets. But the Soviet submarines had broken through the mine barrages in the Gulf of Finland easily in 1942. To keep the Soviet submarine force away from the Baltic shipping stronger efforts were planned. The minefields would be larger and in addition a double submarine net would be laid from Porkkala to Naissaar, Operation “Walross”. The blocking of the Gulf of Finland had been a 100% effective anti-submarine operation. But in 1944, when Finland made a peace treaty with the Soviet Union where one of the conditions was that the soviets would receive one navalbase in Finland Porkkala. The submarine warfare in the Baltic Sea reached a new and final stage after peace with Finland. The Baltic Fleet sent more than 125,000 people to serve ashore at the front. Eighty-three thousand people fought directly on the Leningrad Front. For the protection of Leningrad 10 brigades of marines, four regiments, and more than 40 separate battalions and companies were formed in Kronstadt. The Luftwaffe and German artillery brought down thousands of bombs and shells to the Naval Plant and the Arsenal factory. The German air raids in September 1941, damaged the Baltic Fleet ships and infrastructure of the Plant. Several sections of the Plant were destroyed, the docks were showered with falling bombs, and dozens of workers and engineers were killed. Nevertheless, the plant continued its work. In the difficult conditions of the siege, the workers persevered with their work. Often the working day lasted for 18–20 hours. It was thanks to the power of the Kronstadt Fortress that the destruction of Leningrad (the main industrial and cultural center of the Soviet Union) was successfully prevented. Kronstadt was conferred the status of “City of Military Glory” by the President of the Russian Federation Dmitriy Medvedev on April 27, 2009, for “courage, endurance and mass heroism, exhibited by defenders of the city in the struggle for the freedom and independence of the Motherland”.
Кронштадт 1921 - References - Netflix