A tale of a Scottish tug And their travels up and down the Argyll coast.
Runtime: 30 minutes
The Vital Spark - Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul - Netflix
The ancient Egyptians believed that a soul was made up of many parts. In addition to these components of the soul, there was the human body (called the ha, occasionally a plural haw, meaning approximately “sum of bodily parts”). According to ancient Egyptian creation myths, the god Atum created the world out of chaos, utilizing his own magic (ḥkꜣ). Because the earth was created with magic, Egyptians believed that the world was imbued with magic and so was every living thing upon it. When humans were created, that magic took the form of the soul, an eternal force which resided in and with every human being. The concept of the soul and the parts which encompass it has varied from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom, at times changing from one dynasty to another, from five parts to seven to nine. However, most ancient Egyptian funerary texts reference nine different parts to the soul: the khat (physical body), the sahu (spiritual body), the rn (/ɾin/, Coptic ⲣⲁⲛ or ⲗⲉⲛ) “name, identity”, the bꜣ “personality”, the kꜣ (/kuʀ/) “double”,the jb (/jib/, Coptic ⲉⲡ) “heart”, the šwt “shadow”, ḫw “intelligence”, the sḫm “power, form”, and the ꜣḫ (the combined spirits of a dead person that has successfully completed its transition to the afterlife). Rosalie David, an Egyptologist at the University of Manchester, explains the many facets of the soul as follows:
The Egyptians believed that the human personality had many facets - a concept that was probably developed early in the Old Kingdom. In life, the person was a complete entity, but if he had led a virtuous life, he could also have access to a multiplicity of forms that could be used in the next world. In some instances, these forms could be employed to help those whom the deceased wished to support or, alternately, to take revenge on his enemies.
The Vital Spark - kꜣ "double" - Netflix
The kꜣ was the Egyptian concept of vital essence, which distinguishes the difference between a living and a dead person, with death occurring when the kꜣ left the body. The Egyptians believed that Khnum created the bodies of children on a potter's wheel and inserted them into their mothers' bodies. Depending on the region, Egyptians believed that Heqet or Meskhenet was the creator of each person's kꜣ, breathing it into them at the instant of their birth as the part of their soul that made them be alive. This resembles the concept of spirit in other religions. The Egyptians also believed that the kꜣ was sustained through food and drink. For this reason food and drink offerings were presented to the dead, although it was the kꜣw within the offerings that was consumed, not the physical aspect. The kꜣ was often represented in Egyptian iconography as a second image of the king, leading earlier works to attempt to translate kꜣ as double.